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Technical: A Brief History of Payment Channels: from Satoshi to Lightning Network

Who cares about political tweets from some random country's president when payment channels are a much more interesting and are actually capable of carrying value?
So let's have a short history of various payment channel techs!

Generation 0: Satoshi's Broken nSequence Channels

Because Satoshi's Vision included payment channels, except his implementation sucked so hard we had to go fix it and added RBF as a by-product.
Originally, the plan for nSequence was that mempools would replace any transaction spending certain inputs with another transaction spending the same inputs, but only if the nSequence field of the replacement was larger.
Since 0xFFFFFFFF was the highest value that nSequence could get, this would mark a transaction as "final" and not replaceable on the mempool anymore.
In fact, this "nSequence channel" I will describe is the reason why we have this weird rule about nLockTime and nSequence. nLockTime actually only works if nSequence is not 0xFFFFFFFF i.e. final. If nSequence is 0xFFFFFFFF then nLockTime is ignored, because this if the "final" version of the transaction.
So what you'd do would be something like this:
  1. You go to a bar and promise the bartender to pay by the time the bar closes. Because this is the Bitcoin universe, time is measured in blockheight, so the closing time of the bar is indicated as some future blockheight.
  2. For your first drink, you'd make a transaction paying to the bartender for that drink, paying from some coins you have. The transaction has an nLockTime equal to the closing time of the bar, and a starting nSequence of 0. You hand over the transaction and the bartender hands you your drink.
  3. For your succeeding drink, you'd remake the same transaction, adding the payment for that drink to the transaction output that goes to the bartender (so that output keeps getting larger, by the amount of payment), and having an nSequence that is one higher than the previous one.
  4. Eventually you have to stop drinking. It comes down to one of two possibilities:
    • You drink until the bar closes. Since it is now the nLockTime indicated in the transaction, the bartender is able to broadcast the latest transaction and tells the bouncers to kick you out of the bar.
    • You wisely consider the state of your liver. So you re-sign the last transaction with a "final" nSequence of 0xFFFFFFFF i.e. the maximum possible value it can have. This allows the bartender to get his or her funds immediately (nLockTime is ignored if nSequence is 0xFFFFFFFF), so he or she tells the bouncers to let you out of the bar.
Now that of course is a payment channel. Individual payments (purchases of alcohol, so I guess buying coffee is not in scope for payment channels). Closing is done by creating a "final" transaction that is the sum of the individual payments. Sure there's no routing and channels are unidirectional and channels have a maximum lifetime but give Satoshi a break, he was also busy inventing Bitcoin at the time.
Now if you noticed I called this kind of payment channel "broken". This is because the mempool rules are not consensus rules, and cannot be validated (nothing about the mempool can be validated onchain: I sigh every time somebody proposes "let's make block size dependent on mempool size", mempool state cannot be validated by onchain data). Fullnodes can't see all of the transactions you signed, and then validate that the final one with the maximum nSequence is the one that actually is used onchain. So you can do the below:
  1. Become friends with Jihan Wu, because he owns >51% of the mining hashrate (he totally reorged Bitcoin to reverse the Binance hack right?).
  2. Slip Jihan Wu some of the more interesting drinks you're ordering as an incentive to cooperate with you. So say you end up ordering 100 drinks, you split it with Jihan Wu and give him 50 of the drinks.
  3. When the bar closes, Jihan Wu quickly calls his mining rig and tells them to mine the version of your transaction with nSequence 0. You know, that first one where you pay for only one drink.
  4. Because fullnodes cannot validate nSequence, they'll accept even the nSequence=0 version and confirm it, immutably adding you paying for a single alcoholic drink to the blockchain.
  5. The bartender, pissed at being cheated, takes out a shotgun from under the bar and shoots at you and Jihan Wu.
  6. Jihan Wu uses his mystical chi powers (actually the combined exhaust from all of his mining rigs) to slow down the shotgun pellets, making them hit you as softly as petals drifting in the wind.
  7. The bartender mutters some words, clothes ripping apart as he or she (hard to believe it could be a she but hey) turns into a bear, ready to maul you for cheating him or her of the payment for all the 100 drinks you ordered from him or her.
  8. Steely-eyed, you stand in front of the bartender-turned-bear, daring him to touch you. You've watched Revenant, you know Leonardo di Caprio could survive a bear mauling, and if some posh actor can survive that, you know you can too. You make a pose. "Drunken troll logic attack!"
  9. I think I got sidetracked here.
Lessons learned?

Spilman Channels

Incentive-compatible time-limited unidirectional channel; or, Satoshi's Vision, Fixed (if transaction malleability hadn't been a problem, that is).
Now, we know the bartender will turn into a bear and maul you if you try to cheat the payment channel, and now that we've revealed you're good friends with Jihan Wu, the bartender will no longer accept a payment channel scheme that lets one you cooperate with a miner to cheat the bartender.
Fortunately, Jeremy Spilman proposed a better way that would not let you cheat the bartender.
First, you and the bartender perform this ritual:
  1. You get some funds and create a transaction that pays to a 2-of-2 multisig between you and the bartender. You don't broadcast this yet: you just sign it and get its txid.
  2. You create another transaction that spends the above transaction. This transaction (the "backoff") has an nLockTime equal to the closing time of the bar, plus one block. You sign it and give this backoff transaction (but not the above transaction) to the bartender.
  3. The bartender signs the backoff and gives it back to you. It is now valid since it's spending a 2-of-2 of you and the bartender, and both of you have signed the backoff transaction.
  4. Now you broadcast the first transaction onchain. You and the bartender wait for it to be deeply confirmed, then you can start ordering.
The above is probably vaguely familiar to LN users. It's the funding process of payment channels! The first transaction, the one that pays to a 2-of-2 multisig, is the funding transaction that backs the payment channel funds.
So now you start ordering in this way:
  1. For your first drink, you create a transaction spending the funding transaction output and sending the price of the drink to the bartender, with the rest returning to you.
  2. You sign the transaction and pass it to the bartender, who serves your first drink.
  3. For your succeeding drinks, you recreate the same transaction, adding the price of the new drink to the sum that goes to the bartender and reducing the money returned to you. You sign the transaction and give it to the bartender, who serves you your next drink.
  4. At the end:
    • If the bar closing time is reached, the bartender signs the latest transaction, completing the needed 2-of-2 signatures and broadcasting this to the Bitcoin network. Since the backoff transaction is the closing time + 1, it can't get used at closing time.
    • If you decide you want to leave early because your liver is crying, you just tell the bartender to go ahead and close the channel (which the bartender can do at any time by just signing and broadcasting the latest transaction: the bartender won't do that because he or she is hoping you'll stay and drink more).
    • If you ended up just hanging around the bar and never ordering, then at closing time + 1 you broadcast the backoff transaction and get your funds back in full.
Now, even if you pass 50 drinks to Jihan Wu, you can't give him the first transaction (the one which pays for only one drink) and ask him to mine it: it's spending a 2-of-2 and the copy you have only contains your own signature. You need the bartender's signature to make it valid, but he or she sure as hell isn't going to cooperate in something that would lose him or her money, so a signature from the bartender validating old state where he or she gets paid less isn't going to happen.
So, problem solved, right? Right? Okay, let's try it. So you get your funds, put them in a funding tx, get the backoff tx, confirm the funding tx...
Once the funding transaction confirms deeply, the bartender laughs uproariously. He or she summons the bouncers, who surround you menacingly.
"I'm refusing service to you," the bartender says.
"Fine," you say. "I was leaving anyway;" You smirk. "I'll get back my money with the backoff transaction, and posting about your poor service on reddit so you get negative karma, so there!"
"Not so fast," the bartender says. His or her voice chills your bones. It looks like your exploitation of the Satoshi nSequence payment channel is still fresh in his or her mind. "Look at the txid of the funding transaction that got confirmed."
"What about it?" you ask nonchalantly, as you flip open your desktop computer and open a reputable blockchain explorer.
What you see shocks you.
"What the --- the txid is different! You--- you changed my signature?? But how? I put the only copy of my private key in a sealed envelope in a cast-iron box inside a safe buried in the Gobi desert protected by a clan of nomads who have dedicated their lives and their childrens' lives to keeping my private key safe in perpetuity!"
"Didn't you know?" the bartender asks. "The components of the signature are just very large numbers. The sign of one of the signature components can be changed, from positive to negative, or negative to positive, and the signature will remain valid. Anyone can do that, even if they don't know the private key. But because Bitcoin includes the signatures in the transaction when it's generating the txid, this little change also changes the txid." He or she chuckles. "They say they'll fix it by separating the signatures from the transaction body. They're saying that these kinds of signature malleability won't affect transaction ids anymore after they do this, but I bet I can get my good friend Jihan Wu to delay this 'SepSig' plan for a good while yet. Friendly guy, this Jihan Wu, it turns out all I had to do was slip him 51 drinks and he was willing to mine a tx with the signature signs flipped." His or her grin widens. "I'm afraid your backoff transaction won't work anymore, since it spends a txid that is not existent and will never be confirmed. So here's the deal. You pay me 99% of the funds in the funding transaction, in exchange for me signing the transaction that spends with the txid that you see onchain. Refuse, and you lose 100% of the funds and every other HODLer, including me, benefits from the reduction in coin supply. Accept, and you get to keep 1%. I lose nothing if you refuse, so I won't care if you do, but consider the difference of getting zilch vs. getting 1% of your funds." His or her eyes glow. "GENUFLECT RIGHT NOW."
Lesson learned?

CLTV-protected Spilman Channels

Using CLTV for the backoff branch.
This variation is simply Spilman channels, but with the backoff transaction replaced with a backoff branch in the SCRIPT you pay to. It only became possible after OP_CHECKLOCKTIMEVERIFY (CLTV) was enabled in 2015.
Now as we saw in the Spilman Channels discussion, transaction malleability means that any pre-signed offchain transaction can easily be invalidated by flipping the sign of the signature of the funding transaction while the funding transaction is not yet confirmed.
This can be avoided by simply putting any special requirements into an explicit branch of the Bitcoin SCRIPT. Now, the backoff branch is supposed to create a maximum lifetime for the payment channel, and prior to the introduction of OP_CHECKLOCKTIMEVERIFY this could only be done by having a pre-signed nLockTime transaction.
With CLTV, however, we can now make the branches explicit in the SCRIPT that the funding transaction pays to.
Instead of paying to a 2-of-2 in order to set up the funding transaction, you pay to a SCRIPT which is basically "2-of-2, OR this singlesig after a specified lock time".
With this, there is no backoff transaction that is pre-signed and which refers to a specific txid. Instead, you can create the backoff transaction later, using whatever txid the funding transaction ends up being confirmed under. Since the funding transaction is immutable once confirmed, it is no longer possible to change the txid afterwards.

Todd Micropayment Networks

The old hub-spoke model (that isn't how LN today actually works).
One of the more direct predecessors of the Lightning Network was the hub-spoke model discussed by Peter Todd. In this model, instead of payers directly having channels to payees, payers and payees connect to a central hub server. This allows any payer to pay any payee, using the same channel for every payee on the hub. Similarly, this allows any payee to receive from any payer, using the same channel.
Remember from the above Spilman example? When you open a channel to the bartender, you have to wait around for the funding tx to confirm. This will take an hour at best. Now consider that you have to make channels for everyone you want to pay to. That's not very scalable.
So the Todd hub-spoke model has a central "clearing house" that transport money from payers to payees. The "Moonbeam" project takes this model. Of course, this reveals to the hub who the payer and payee are, and thus the hub can potentially censor transactions. Generally, though, it was considered that a hub would more efficiently censor by just not maintaining a channel with the payer or payee that it wants to censor (since the money it owned in the channel would just be locked uselessly if the hub won't process payments to/from the censored user).
In any case, the ability of the central hub to monitor payments means that it can surveill the payer and payee, and then sell this private transactional data to third parties. This loss of privacy would be intolerable today.
Peter Todd also proposed that there might be multiple hubs that could transport funds to each other on behalf of their users, providing somewhat better privacy.
Another point of note is that at the time such networks were proposed, only unidirectional (Spilman) channels were available. Thus, while one could be a payer, or payee, you would have to use separate channels for your income versus for your spending. Worse, if you wanted to transfer money from your income channel to your spending channel, you had to close both and reshuffle the money between them, both onchain activities.

Poon-Dryja Lightning Network

Bidirectional two-participant channels.
The Poon-Dryja channel mechanism has two important properties:
Both the original Satoshi and the two Spilman variants are unidirectional: there is a payer and a payee, and if the payee wants to do a refund, or wants to pay for a different service or product the payer is providing, then they can't use the same unidirectional channel.
The Poon-Dryjam mechanism allows channels, however, to be bidirectional instead: you are not a payer or a payee on the channel, you can receive or send at any time as long as both you and the channel counterparty are online.
Further, unlike either of the Spilman variants, there is no time limit for the lifetime of a channel. Instead, you can keep the channel open for as long as you want.
Both properties, together, form a very powerful scaling property that I believe most people have not appreciated. With unidirectional channels, as mentioned before, if you both earn and spend over the same network of payment channels, you would have separate channels for earning and spending. You would then need to perform onchain operations to "reverse" the directions of your channels periodically. Secondly, since Spilman channels have a fixed lifetime, even if you never used either channel, you would have to periodically "refresh" it by closing it and reopening.
With bidirectional, indefinite-lifetime channels, you may instead open some channels when you first begin managing your own money, then close them only after your lawyers have executed your last will and testament on how the money in your channels get divided up to your heirs: that's just two onchain transactions in your entire lifetime. That is the potentially very powerful scaling property that bidirectional, indefinite-lifetime channels allow.
I won't discuss the transaction structure needed for Poon-Dryja bidirectional channels --- it's complicated and you can easily get explanations with cute graphics elsewhere.
There is a weakness of Poon-Dryja that people tend to gloss over (because it was fixed very well by RustyReddit):
Another thing I want to emphasize is that while the Lightning Network paper and many of the earlier presentations developed from the old Peter Todd hub-and-spoke model, the modern Lightning Network takes the logical conclusion of removing a strict separation between "hubs" and "spokes". Any node on the Lightning Network can very well work as a hub for any other node. Thus, while you might operate as "mostly a payer", "mostly a forwarding node", "mostly a payee", you still end up being at least partially a forwarding node ("hub") on the network, at least part of the time. This greatly reduces the problems of privacy inherent in having only a few hub nodes: forwarding nodes cannot get significantly useful data from the payments passing through them, because the distance between the payer and the payee can be so large that it would be likely that the ultimate payer and the ultimate payee could be anyone on the Lightning Network.
Lessons learned?

Future

After LN, there's also the Decker-Wattenhofer Duplex Micropayment Channels (DMC). This post is long enough as-is, LOL. But for now, it uses a novel "decrementing nSequence channel", using the new relative-timelock semantics of nSequence (not the broken one originally by Satoshi). It actually uses multiple such "decrementing nSequence" constructs, terminating in a pair of Spilman channels, one in both directions (thus "duplex"). Maybe I'll discuss it some other time.
The realization that channel constructions could actually hold more channel constructions inside them (the way the Decker-Wattenhofer puts a pair of Spilman channels inside a series of "decrementing nSequence channels") lead to the further thought behind Burchert-Decker-Wattenhofer channel factories. Basically, you could host multiple two-participant channel constructs inside a larger multiparticipant "channel" construct (i.e. host multiple channels inside a factory).
Further, we have the Decker-Russell-Osuntokun or "eltoo" construction. I'd argue that this is "nSequence done right". I'll write more about this later, because this post is long enough.
Lessons learned?
submitted by almkglor to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

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when Binance was an upstart cryptocurrency exchange fresh off the back of its own ICO, its public image wasn’t quite as clean cut.
Screenshots still exist of an exchange between DigiByte (DGB) community members and Binance Director of Business Development Ashley Ouyang, where the DigiByte team are openly extorted for the privilege of securing an exchange listing.
The matter was quietly forgotten in the daily news cycle, but after two years it has emerged once again. On September 20th, DigiByte founder Jared Tate revealed that during a video call with the Binance team, he was told to pay $300,000, as well as 3% of all DigiByte coins in order to finally get DGB listed.
Binance chief CZ has since brushed off Jared Tate’s comments in the manner expected of a busy CEO, for whom such silliness isn’t worth his time.
Yet if Binance really were to be shut down in 12 months, it would more likely be because of scammy practices like these, rather than those mentioned by Calvin Ayre.
DigiByte is currently listed on 80 cryptocurrency exchanges, and according to the team, not a single one of those demanded a listing fee – let alone 3% of the entire coin supply.
Question: How much of the world’s cryptocurrency supply is locked up in Binance’s private vaults? Extortion funds are SAFU.
Despite alarm-ringing from respected figures in the crypto space, the ability for Binance to arbitrarily decide the fate of cryptocurrency projects remains uncontested. Binance, helmed by its own “Little CZaer”, is too big to fail at this point, and such scandals appear to just bounce right off it.
Any hope of justice for the DigiBytes of this world may only be found in the fact that Binance, like Rome, will inevitably fall one day. How much damage is done – and how much money is extracted from powerless community projects in the meantime, remains to be seen.
The world’s largest crypto exchange is going legit. Binance, which processes more than $1 billion on a daily basis and for so long has embodied crypto’s Wild West culture, announced that it will launch a U.S.-based service — but, in the meantime, it is implementing restrictions for U.S. passport holders worldwide and those based in the country.
The company has grown to become one of the biggest names in crypto by allowing anyone to use its service to trade myriad tokens, many of which are unavailable or limited on other exchanges. But over the past year, Binance has matured and begun to offer more formalized services. Following fiat currency exchange launches in the U.K., Uganda and Singapore, Binance is opening a dedicated U.S. exchange to avoid uncertainty around its legality.
This week, Binance announced it is pairing up with BAM Trading Services — which Coindesk notes is FinCEN-registered and has links to Koi Compliance, which counts Binance as an investor — to launch a U.S. exchange “soon.” That will mean, however a level of disruption for some U.S. customers in the meantime.
Chiefly, Binance will no longer permit U.S. passport holders to sign up for its global Binance.com service. That’s according to the company’s updated terms and conditions — “Binance is unable to provide services to any U.S. person” — which were confirmed to TechCrunch by a spokesperson.
Existing users have a grace period of 90 days, after which they will be unable to deposit funds to the site or make trades. Binance declined to state whether those bans will be administered by a geo-block on U.S. IP addresses, but it did confirm that U.S. customers will retain access to funds held in the service.
That 90-day period ends September 12, so that’s effectively the deadline for Binance to launch its new U.S. exchange if it is to avoid impacting its American user base.
The reality is that the situation is more nuanced.
U.S.-based users could continue to use the service by browsing the site with a VPN. Binance allows its users to sign up for a limited account without KYC — i.e. providing verification documents like a passport copy — which allows trading but limits withdrawals to two Bitcoin per day. That won’t satisfy more professional traders — most of whom you’d imagine would already have an account on Binance by now — but it does leave a loophole for others.
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[uncensored-r/CryptoCurrency] Hard Truths I wish people told me when I started in December, 2017

The following post by Crerilian is being replicated because some comments within the post(but not the post itself) have been openly removed.
The original post can be found(in censored form) at this link:
np.reddit.com/ CryptoCurrency/comments/81w14g
The original post's content was as follows:
Ok fellas, with the bull market coming up in the next couple weeks or months I want to give some advice. Like the title reads these are some hard truths, so I expect to be downvoted because I will be shitting on peoples favorite coins. When I first started crypto in December I wish someone sat me down and told me these things. I was on reddit the first time I bought into crypto but it wasn’t much help because people were shilling coins already at the top. Unfortunately reddit is an echo chamber and people choose to listen to stuff that gives them validation. Also, there are people who are either ignorant or disingenuous about advice they’re giving.
  1. Ripple will never reach $100 and that is 100%. It will need a market cap alone of over $1 trillion, and that is more then double the entire crypto market cap. Looking at the ripple subreddit saddens me, because the mental olympics these guys go through to justify it hitting $100 is absurd. I wish it can hit $100 that would be awesome for ripple holders, but it’s just not feasible. Will ripple rise? Of course it will. It was the first coin I bought and many others first coin as well.
  2. Again, back to market cap. Look at market cap not dollar price when looking for investments. Stellar for example is 30 cents but is the 8th most expensive coin. For it to double it will need another $6.5b. I like stellar and what they’re doing not saying its a bad coin, but look at it like this. It was 1 cent in July, 2017. It peaked around 80 cents in January. That is a 80x for people who bought in July. Currently, stellar sits at 30 cents. If you buy in now, if it goes to 60 cents you get a 2x well the people who got in july get a 30x. STOP buying peoples tops, let the new noobs that come into crypto buy YOUR tops. You have to understand a lot of these guys that shill these high marketcap coins either got in really early, or are the suckers who bought the tops without realizing it.
  3. Crypto is a zero sum game. People have to be selling lows and buying highs to make others money. Everyone made money in 2017, because the marketcap of entire crypto did a 42x. It went from 20b-850b. You must understand that this was the most insane bull run in history. Most bubbles do a 5x in 5 years and people call it a crazy bull run. My point with all this is this run made a lot of people think they are geniuses. Don’t take peoples advice just based on the fact they made good money and were in crypto for a year. A dead squirrel could’ve turned $1k into $100k+ last year.
  4. Don’t follow the hive mentality of HODL. Yes, you can’t predict the exact tops or the exact bottoms. Which is why you must take profit gradually. Set targets and when you reach that target pull some money. I’m not saying cash out to fiat, but atleast move that profit into a coin you been wanting to buy that may not have pumped yet. Keep in mind the market always going in cycles and corrects. If you HODL for a year, yes you will make money but it will be significantly less then if you just take profit gradually and use that money to buy the dips. You can’t predict if it will dip tomorrow, next week, or next month, but rest assured it WILL dip.
  5. Make accounts on multiple exchanges. Kucoin, cryptopia, idex, ect. A lot of people just sit on a binance account. If you want good entry points binance already pumps coins to 2-5x their value the second they’re listed. Idex is one of the best opportunities to get good entry points. Coins will be listed here immediately after most ICO’s operating on the ethereum platform.
  6. My biggest learning resource for investments has been following crypto twitter accounts. Guys who have been in this space for years. Anyone can talk and seem knowledgeable, but who actually has the stats to back them up? I went through hundreds of twitter profiles and looked at peoples coin calls from months back. I looked at their success rates and put value on their calls based on that. (For example, one guy called WTC at 35 cents, XRB at 10 cents, and many other winners, I value his opinion the most.) I began noticing patterns in the way these guys call coins. The most successful guys with highest success rates usually call the same coin. I began picking up on their habits and the resources they use, and soon I was buying coins before they even mention them. Also, you want the best entry points crypto moves fast. Reddit I’ve noticed is weeks behind on calls from twitter.
  7. You have to also look at satoshis when your checking if you made money investing into other coins, rather than just holding bitcoin. Your dollar value will increase if bitcoin rises, but if its going down in bitcoin value you were better off just holding bitcoin.
  8. Research, research and research. Seriously, put the time in. Learn what it is your buying. Crypto is not just vaporware their is underlying value in these projects. Read the whitepapers, look at the teams, and become immersed in the community.
This advice isn’t for the person who just wants to put money into a coin and come back next year with 3-10x their money. You can buy nano, neo, ect and I’m sure you’ll be satisfied if that’s what your aiming for. This advice is for guys like me who want to make like changing returns and are willing to put the time in.
One thing I can always tell you is always be curious. Don’t think you know it all. I been in crypto for 45 days and have been reading and reading almost 5+ hours a day, and I’m still learning. Don’t be the sucker buying peoples tops making them rich, in hopes of possibly doubling in a month. This market is too rewarding and this opportunity may never come again. Take advantage of it. I am not writing this for karma or whatever. I genuinely wish everyone can reach their goals and fulfill their dreams. It really hurts me when I see the mass of bad information going around and people being mislead.
I have been commenting on reddit a lot and people keep private messaging me what to buy, and I’m sure it will happen again after this post. So, here is my portfolio in no specific order for those curious. But please do your own research.
  1. Sharder (SS)
  2. Origin Trail (Trac)
  3. Sophiatx (Sphtx)
  4. Bottos (BTO)
  5. Data (DTA)
  6. CargoX (CXO)
  7. carvertical (CV)
  8. Restart Energy MWAT (MWAT)
  9. Tomocoin (TOMO)
  10. Carvertical (CV)
  11. Wepower (WPR)
  12. Matrix AI network (MAN)
I fully expect to be downvoted these aren’t popular opinions but as long as I help out one person it was worth it. Good luck guys, hope you have a life changing year!
Edit: Yes my portfolio is “special”. It is really aggressive, which is why I say “do your own research”.
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Binance BUYS CoinMarketCap... Livestream with Crypterium CPO: Binance DEX, CRPT burning and more... Crypto Market Rally, Bitcoin Not Moving, SegWit Adoption, Bitcoin + Burger King & XRP Price Up This Line Is Critical For Bitcoin + Binance Scandal Bitcoin: The $100,000 Opportunity! BINANCE ALLOWS PURCHASING OF 5 CRYPTOCURRENCIES WITH CREDIT CARDS New IEO Cartesi On Binance GOV'T STIMULUS TO PUMP BITCOIN! - BITCOIN: CRUCIAL DECISION POINT - HUGE CHAINLINK PARTERSHIP! HOW TO FUND BINANCE ACCOUNT IN 30 SECONDS *DEPOSIT/WITHDRAW*

While Reddit controls all karma, the community points exist outside of Reddit’s control as they would exist as ERC-20 tokens. Points can also be used to buy Special Memberships, which grants the right to use emojis and GIFs in comments or weight polls. Reddit users can buy Special Memberships directly from Reddit in case they don't have the ... Reddit is developing a blockchain points platform. Block.one set to use its resources to vote in EOS governance processes. Binance CEO praises Brave browser’s privacy. Canaan files losses for $148 million during 2019. CashFusion reaches 19,900 BCH fused in less than a year, and Gemini adds support for three new cryptocurrencies. Karma reflète les contributions d’un utilisateur à travers Reddit. Les points de communauté seront des jetons de chaîne de blocs décentralisés représentant la propriété d’une communauté spécifique. Leur utilisation sera déterminée par une communauté elle-même, Reddit n’ayant aucun contrôle sur ces décisions. Reddit Karma vs. Community Points. Given some of the light controversy that the karma system has (think bot manipulation and big budget ad campaigns), this new blockchain-based community system may further improve the Reddit community as a whole. It can add some much needed transparency to how the site is controlled and managed. Karma doesn’t look like it will be going anywhere though but at ... Reddit experiments with a new project named Community points that will be based on the Ethereum blockchain. These community points represent ownership of a subreddit so let’s find out more in the following Ethereum news.. Reddit is among the most popular social media and now it is experimenting with the Community Points based on the Ethereum blockchain in a form of ERC-20 tokens. Reddit does have a points system called Karma. However, Karma is controlled by Reddit while the Community Points will be on the Ethereum blockchain, uncontrollable by the platform. A Reddit spokesperson has also confirmed the news. In a recent statement, the spokesperson said the Community Points directly represent how much a user interacts with the community. Last year, a study found a ... Reddit launches Ethereum-based community points. Visa files patent to digitize any fiat currency. Investors studying to sue Telegram over TON refund structure. Coinbase report states just 24% of investors have a BTC only po Reddit also assured users that it has no access or control over their community points, as points will be based on a blockchain and independently stored in users’ wallets “just like Bitcoin!” “Neither Reddit nor moderators can take your Points away or decide what you do with them. It’s all up to you,” they wrote. Moving forward Bitcoin was created to take control of financial power away from banks and governments and put that power in the hands of the people. As long as you have a smartphone and internet connection, you're able to send and receive it, anywhere in the world! Hopefully in years to come more regular people, and especially the millions of unbanked, will become aware of this and be able to make use of ... Bitcoin SV (BSV) - $2.91B - $162.91; Stellar (XLM) - $1.72B - $0.09; Be nice to each other! r/CryptoCurrency is a welcoming place for all cryptocurrencies. Live Discussion on Discord Crypto Devs CryptoCurrencyMemes. Monthly Top 10 Market Cap Subreddits. r/Bitcoin r/Ethereum r/Ripple r/BitcoinCash r/Litecoin r/EOS r/Binance r/Tether r/Stellar r ...

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Binance BUYS CoinMarketCap...

Binance users can now buy crypto using their Visa and MasterCard debit and credit cards. Using Koinal, Binance clients can buy five cryptocurrencies including Bitcoin (BTC), Ether (ETH), Litecoin ... DO NOT MISS OUT ON THE BUYING OPPORTUNITY OF A GENERATION. In this video I articulate THE VALUE PROPOSITION that is Bitcoin. Send this video to a friend! Post on social media! *I am only speaking ... My Second Channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCvXjP6h0_4CSBPVgHqfO-UA ----- Supp... This Line Is Critical For Bitcoin + Binance Scandal Altcoin Daily. Loading... Unsubscribe from Altcoin Daily? Cancel Unsubscribe. Working... Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe 161K. Loading ... BITCOIN DUMP INCOMING?! -40% DROP POSSIBLE?!💥LIVE Crypto Analysis TA & BTC Cryptocurrency Price News - Duration: 24:50. Crypto Kirby Trading 17,429 views New How About Buying This GPU? https://geni.us/iBTw0 Other "CoinMarketCap" Alternatives! Messari - https://messari.io/ Coin360 - https://coin360.com/ CoinGecko -... We are on track to bring you an exciting new update this week. Integrating Binance Chain is not the only cherry on our pie. Key points of our discussion ar... The key underlying point I can make, is make sure you have accounts made and that they are verified so you can make moves while everyone is scrambling to deposit but has to wait! Hello friends, in this video I will talk about the new IEO launched at the binance launchpad. The name of this IEO is Cartesi. Basic rules have been explained in this video i.e. how to take part ...

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